Fun Theory

According to the New Media Consortium Horizon Report: 2011, many modern museums face the following problem with advancing technology: 

Greater understanding is needed of the relationships, differences, and synergies between technology intended to be used within the museum and public-facing technology such as websites, social media, and mobile apps. Too few in museum administration see the opportunities that virtual museum visitors might be bringing for fundraising, philanthropy, and specialized marketing. The dichotomy between the physical and virtual museum visitor is blurring rapidly, and both audiences have high expectations with regard to online access to services and information. Still, the notion that museums must provide comprehensive information and services online is a genuine challenge, especially for smaller museums. For larger institutions, however, providing such services has risen to an expectation from the visiting public.

When looking at how address the different connections and perspectives of museum pieces, I think of how I reflect on what museum pieces enthrall me most. Usually when examining an exhibit I find myself mentally evaluating it against other pieces I have encountered, either in the same museum or in past experiences.  I also usually get feedback or recommendations from people about museums or exhibits that they believe would interest me. Often times I get great recommendations, and other times I find it difficult to follow up on a recommendation either because I have forgotten or had trouble finding the suggested exhibit.

All of these seemingly connected components of my museum experience could be enhanced by a technological ability to expound my museum findings (and look at others’). This led me to imagine a technology platform that could provide the public museum visitor with a very interactive and customized experience. I began to imagine a system that integrated across multiple media platforms, specifically: websites, mobile applications, and social media.

This system would be similar to a Yelp! or Google Maps system; where users could provide feedback on their experience with a particular exhibit (or piece in an exhibit), the feedback would be available to the public, and it could be used to make connections to other exhibits/pieces (or even other museums!). Each user could at any point during an exhibit find a placard associated with the item in question, on it would be a digitally readable identifier (possibly a QR Code) which would access a digital indexing of that item on their mobile device. There others will have posted opinions or related recommendations. The user could add their own feedback on the spot, or they could use the mobile application to find other exhibits in that very museum that are similar or in some way related to what they are examining. The application would give concise directions to the other exhibit so the user could find it. Each step of the way the visitor would be able to leave their own advice and promote advice others had given that helped them. The system can also interface with social media by affording users the ability to ‘share’, ‘tweet’, or ‘check-in’ at an exhibit or piece. This would be visible to their social media connections and could possibly draw outside attention through free social marketing.

For the ‘virtual’ visitor they would see the result of ‘physical’ visitor’s actions. They would be able to look at a specific museum on a webpage and read up on different pieces before visiting the museum. They could plan out a travel path through the museum to make sure they see only the pieces they are interested in. They could plan ahead and purchase tickets in advance (ease of purchase means more visits for museums). Users would also be able to sift through other visitor’s opinions, and follow connections made by visitors to find other pieces of interest. The possibility exists that they may end up visiting a different museum than originally intended based on the recommended connections of a past visitor. And in the typical social media fashion, users could promote other peoples recommendations they found helpful or insightful; further reinforcing high-quality feedback.

There are obvious concerns, as always, with internet interactions and marketing. It needs to be moderated to ensure that users are putting up appropriate and germane information. This is an obvious obstacle that the respective museums would have to evaluate before opting to use this interactive museum system.

This system is an interactive way to voice your opinion of museum content, but also to help others find what they are seeking in a museum. The hope is that you help yourself in the long run by bringing more visitors/friends to museums who can provides solid recommendations that improve your experience. By posting our great experiences on social media we bring attention to a part of society that is being left behind by advancing technology and we refocus a waning interest. This will bring more donations, revenue, visitors, discussion, and (hopefully) progress to the entire museum/gallery community.

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What SOPA, PIPA, and ACTA are really about.

Disclaimer & Citation- A lot of the ideas and arguments that I will be discussing in this post are positions and arguments that I have heard from a number of sources, but the one that deserves most of the credit is Jim Sterling.

For those of you who are unfamiliar with Jim Sterling, he is a semi-notable video games journalist. He does extensive Reviews for Destructiod.com (one of the best places for balanced and thorough game reviews). He also does a lot of Op-Ed pieces around the web for sites like Destructiod.com and The Escapist Magazine. He has some truly interesting view points, a stinging wit, and tremendous persuasive ability.

In one of the recent most Destructoid Podcasts he discusses the true motivation behind the recent rash of Intellectual Property (IP) related legislation, and it provided a view point that I hadn’t previously considered.

Most proponents of the current IP legislation whether it be SOPA (Stop Online Piracy Act), PIPA (Protect Intellectual Property Act), or ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement); will claim that their goal is to stop the illegal distribution of copyrighted material. That they wish to stop the illegal distribution of said material in order to protect the property rights of those that created it, and to ensure the successful/profitable sale of that property without illegal competition.

Now that seems just fucking peachy, but unfortunately, the measures through which that property is to be protected could aptly be described as draconian. I will assume at this point that most people understand that full power that legislation like SOPA and PIPA could have wielded. That the government and corporations could effectively remove certain sites from the web through server takedowns, DNS blocking (making your webpage unreachable), or restricting cash flow. If you are still unclear I would point you to this brief video which is one of the best and simplest breakdowns of the bills (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBy7yooz3MM).

So while many may understand what the bill is capable of doing, many of us don’t understand fully why it is being lobbied so fervently.

The publicized position for most publishers, producers, and corporations is well known. But Mr. Sterling accentuated a very real ulterior motivation for supporting such legislation:

These publishers want the ability to stifle potential IP owners who they don’t directly control or who are not connected to them. Most publishers will claim be protecting the rights and property of the creative artist, but in fact they are protecting themselves because more often than not: they own the rights or licensing to IP created by others. These publishers, recording companies, movie studios, and printers are scared shitless of Artists who can effectively cut them out the equation.

The internet has made it possible for a single person with no backing or large distribution company to reach an audience of millions, making these very powerful companies obsolete. These distributors fear that obsolescence and are fighting tooth and nail to stop artists from circumventing them. This is a prime example of middle men trying to hopelessly to remain relevant, with destructive results.

Indie video game developers (like Team Meat and Mojang), musicians (like Trent Reznor), and comedians (like Louis C.K.), have made thousands and millions of dollars on media that was not controlled or managed, simply delivered to the audience and payment was asked for up front.

That type of business model involves a direct dialogue and interaction between the artist and the consumer is the exact reason why major publishers and distributors support legislation like SOPA and PIPA. It destroys the feedback loop that they use to entrap most creative artists.

You can talk to nearly any person well versed in copyright and they will tell you the same thing: while copyrights and patents were invented to protect an individual’s ideas and intellectual property; that is no longer the case. IP laws have created an environment where copyrights are used by corporations to leverage each other in business dealing.  Publishers and Recording agencies convince unwitting artists to surrender the rights to their ideas for the ability to spread those ideas. Most artists are trapped by these distributors, paying off ever accumulating debt and service charges, while retaining no rights to their IP should they choose to walk away.

Now that the internet challenges the current paradigm, everyone with a stake in exploiting the work of artists (or selling someone else’s intellectual property) is scrambling for the nearest telephone to whisper sweet nothings in the ear of our Legislature. To convince elected officials that this open environment of communication must be regulated in order to prevent ‘theft’ and to uphold the rule of law.

The bottom line for most of these pieces of legislation is that entertainment groups and organizations like the MPAA, RIAA, and ESA are seeking to extend their control over the IP licenses that have accumulated and to ensure that other people can’t freely share the IP that these companies don’t yet own.

For those of you who think this is over, you would do well to pay attention. We haven’t finished this argument yet.

Edited Podcast

**I have cut the original podcast for those who just want to listen to the discuss on IP. I do not own the rights to said podcast, I am just simply trying to give credit where credit is due, and to spread ideas that are valuable.**

Original Podcast

(IP discussion starts around 53 minute mark)

9% is not enough.

This is a speech I recently gave a school. The purpose of which was to persuade my audience to take an immediate and personal action. If some of the phrasing seems awkward or out of place, that may be due to the fact that it was delivered to classroom of 20 people.

What if I told you only 1 person in this room was satisfied with the way that this class was being taught? That only 9% of this class was happy with their choice. What if I told you that if you were unhappy with how class was being run, you have the power to change that? What if I told you that it wasn’t just us here in the classroom who were dissatisfied, but that there were another 260 million angry Americans out there as well?

At the end of 2011, 9% of Americans approved of the job being done by the United States Congress. I currently study political science and I have firsthand experience in local government. That passion and experience  has led me to actively follow and participate in congressional politics. By the time I finish here; hopefully you will follow more closely the activity of Congress and you will exercise your influence over it.

CBS and the New York Times found in a 2011 survey that more than 84% of Americans believe that the Congress isn’t doing their job. 9% think they are doing their job. Another 7% don’t even have an opinion.

Do you know who in the federal government can declare war? Or who can institute a draft for said war? How about who sets the tax rate that you pay on your income? Do you know who writes criminal laws you are subject to?

Congress: Your Senators and Congressman are the members of the most powerful branch in the Federal government. Yet somehow the group given such an enormous power over our lives seems to fall short of expectation. How many of you, know the names of your 2 Senators and your Congressman?  If you do, do you know what their party is? Their voting record?

Much of the discontent with congress comes from the apparent disconnect between your representatives and you. Why is there such a disconnect? According to the same CBS poll, Americans at-large gave their local congressmen an approval rating that more than triples the national average. So what Americans are saying is “Congress is broken, but my Congressman is doing fine.” This logic illustrates a problem with voter perception of the Congress. We are electing officials that we may not fully understand or support.

Each and every one of us, excluding convicted felons, has the ability and the right to change this. The Constitution guarantees the right to vote of every citizen. Many younger citizens approach voting as a nuisance and waste of time, believing in their mind that their vote does not impact the overall race. Students from the ages of 18-24, according to the Census Bureau, have the smallest voter turnout rate of any age group by about 5-10% (depending on the year).

If you feel that your vote doesn’t count. Think about this for a moment: Congressional races have only a few thousand voters, just the people who live in your district. As opposed to the 120+ million voters that vote in the presidential election. The concentrated voting pool empowers each vote; you have an amplified impact in Congressional races. Senatorial races are similar; most states base senate races on a county by county basis. So your vote can help determine which candidate your county will go to.

While all you have this influence of Congress, not everyone exercises it. According to George Mason University analysis, voter turn-out during non-presidential elections, called midterm elections, is almost half of turnout during presidential elections. Many of you may have an issue with Congress, yet no one is voting to express their concern.

In order for you to be represented properly, it is your responsibility to understand the people who represent you. You must form an independent opinion of the candidates and evaluate whether that candidate accurately represents your interests, or if they think they are qualified to make decisions that impact the entire nation. How can you evaluate these candidates? There are a score of resources available to all citizens that provide clear information regarding politicians. A quick Google search of my Congressman, Rodney Frelinghuysen brought me to his website. There I found a page that listed his stance on issues, legislation he has promoted, and contact information. Using that information, I personally called my congressman’s office during the House consideration of SOPA to express my disapproval of the bill. You can do the same.

If a candidate already holds office, you can examine their voting record. Nearly all votes in Congress (and State Legislatures!) are available online (http://thomas.loc.gov/home/thomas.php), you can see exactly what your Representatives are supporting or opposing. Most Congressional races and all Senatorial races involve a debate between candidates. Watching these debates can be useful to see where each candidate stands, but also seeing how skilled they are at debate. Debating skills are essential to your representative choice. Congress is a deliberative body and your representative’s job is to make a persuasive case for your needs, and to convince others to support those ideals.

2012 is a General election year, 435 Representatives, 33 Senators, and 1 President will be elected.

How many times someone asked you ‘who you are voting for?’ Do you have an answer? If you tell them, do they ask you, “why?” Maybe you have not paid close attention to the elections, and you don’t have an answer. Now imagine that before election week you checked out each of the candidates in the race, again someone asks you for who you are voting. You can not only tell them which candidate you support for president; but Senate too; and even the House of Representatives. Not only that but you could tell them why you support those candidates. And you might even be able to convince them to support those candidates too, so now your vote (which you may have thought useless) has now doubled in its impact. With a Congress that is supported by more than 9% of the people, we can expect more success in Congress. Perhaps a different type of representative will arrive in Washington if you pay closer attention to these Congressional/Senatorial races: A representative who is truly connected to you. With a return to a more independent and self representative people there will be a stronger confidence in government and more satisfaction with its actions.

Becoming more involved with Congressional and Senatorial races is simple, there are many things you can do to participate:

  • You can register to vote if you have not already. You can register by mail, or at your local town hall or court house.  (http://www.eac.gov/voter_resources/register_to_vote.aspx)
  • You can become more educated about candidates by researching them using web and public records.
  • Contact your Representatives! If you don’t like the way your representative is voting you can call them and their office will take down your opinion. Senators and Congressmen honestly listen to feedback from voters. If there is an overwhelming opposition or support of a bill, they may change their vote.
  • You can donate to or volunteer for a Congressional or Senatorial campaign. These campaigns are always looking for enthusiastic people to help spread their message.
  • Vote. You have a voice and a say in the way that your government is run, if you won’t stand up for your rights and beliefs, why should anyone else do that for you?

James Wilson, the unsung writer of the Constitution, mused about popular representation saying that:

“Oft I have marked, with silent pleasure and admiration, the force and prevalence, throughout the United States, of the principle that the supreme power resides in the people, and that they never part with it… There is a remedy, therefore, for every distemper in government, if the people are not wanting to themselves; if they are wanting to themselves, there is no remedy.”

 

 Sources:

Voice Over: Not a button you can simply push.

(DISCLAIMER: So I have written this post about 3 separate times. First it was disjointed, so I scrapped it, and then it was about 4500 words. So I started once more… So bear with me. )

Sound is one of the most criminally underappreciated elements of game design. Sound design, game music, musical scores, sound effects, and voices all of these pieces make up the whole that is a cohesive game experience. When one of these elements lacks polish or is simply nonexistent a game can flop.

Voice over is one of the oldest parts of sound and game design. Before 3D graphics were considered in games, people were stepping up to the mic and giving speech and form to the in game characters and experiences.

Voice over is critically important to numerous aspects of any game. When it fails everyone seems to have an opinion on it; when it is delivered perfectly, most people overlook it.  When a player is immersed in a game, chances are that they do not realize what exactly is creating the experience, for to realize the ways in which they are being drawn in would render the effect useless. When players can’t find themselves enjoying or being enthralled by a game, they will begin to catalogue every issue they notice with the game. Voice over is usually pretty high on that list of problems. Voice over is categorically overlooked except when it fails.

As mentioned in a previous post (Why Skyrim isn’t Racist Enough) I explained the ways in which a voice can provide for subconscious character development by drawing upon user’s understanding of existing cultural identities. Take a look if you are interested how VO impacts in character design.

There is a way of producing Voice-over, but before you can address the quality of VO you must understand how voice over is created. It must be clear how an idea on a page can transform into thousands of lines of polished dialogue.

1. Ideation

Ideation is the process through which the designers/developers create and brainstorm the project. They will develop the setting, mood, atmosphere, theme, and game play. When they have outlined the basic information and they have sketched out a story, the process can continue.

2. Character Sketches / Bios

During the second step, developers will begin to create characters for the story. They give the characters names, faces, imperfections, personalities and backgrounds. All of the information cultivated by the designers and writers is broken down into character sketches, approximately 1-2 page summaries. This is used as a template for the production team in casting decisions. I’ll elaborate later.

*After Step 2, this is where production begins in earnest. At this point responsibilities shift hands. Step 1 and Step 2 usually fall squarely on the shoulders of a smaller group of writers and designers. There are a few different ways voice over can be done: 1) in-house 2) on contract or 3) a mixture of both. Each method has its benefits and drawbacks, but I won’t get too heavily into detail on that.*

3. Casting Research/Celebrity Searching

Research is a combination of a few different processes. Primarily, this is the stage where the casting crew will pore over the character sketches and try to understand the characters as best as possible; the process ensures that they can make the best casting decision. Most AAA games call for at least 1 celebrity appearance to raise the profile of the game and bring strong talent to the project. The rest of the roles will fall to other non-‘A List’ actors.

4. Casting

Casting can be conducted in many different ways. There are 3 general types that can describe casting practices.

  1. Celebrity Casting – As I stated before, celebrities are often casted for video game roles in order to elevate the caliber and marketing profile of a game. When dealing with these celebrities, they are not to be handled like normal actors. Unlike normal actors, won’t be calling a celebrity in for an audition; you will simply offer their agent/manager the role. After the manager and agent discuss it with actor, the production crew may be given the chance to open a dialogue with the actor. Once questions are answered, and if the actor accepts, negotiation starts. The negotiated contract will cover everything from how much they will be paid to how many copies of the game they will receive, even including what beverages will be stocked in the car that transports them to and from the studio.
  2. General Casting- This is targeted casting where the casting director and crew will contact agencies and actors directly for auditions. These actors will range from mid-profile film and TV actors, to high profile voice actors. These actors will usually audition for the role; if they perform well they will be asked to return for ‘callbacks,’ a second round of auditions with a selected pool of actors. These actors may negotiate contracts or be paid according to *scale (*See below).
  3. Cattle Call – This is what people think of when they think of casting. First, the production team will publish a casting call for each role. The call will typically go out to small time or unknown actors. Then actors will schedule auditions. The casting director or associate will sit in a room for the better part of a day doing back-to-back auditions with all the actors. If one of the actors performs well they will be offered a callback (*See above). If they get the part they will be paid on *scale.

Scale – Think of scale as minimum wage for voice actors. Scale is established by AFTRA (an actor’s union), and starts at ~$800 a day. One day of performance (a ‘day’ is a 4-hour session) will earn the actor just under a grand. Depending on the reputation of the actor, they may be paid overscale, which is simply more than scale. Usually overscale is paid in increments of scale. So a C-List actor or a big name VO actor will get Double Scale for a session. A 4-hour day will net them pay equivalent of two 4-hour days, ~$1600. On the surface, a $200/hr wage may seem excessive, but most actors will finish their recording in only 2 or 3 days of performance which means they receive only 2-3 scale payments.

5. Writing

*Clarification: Writing can happen at any point during the development cycle of a game. Some studios prefer to write at the start of the project, while others prefer to write dialogue well into the game production.

With the roles and story solidified the writing team (either the studio’s writers or the contracted writing team) will develop dialogue for the characters and weave a ‘screenplay’. The game script will determine not only what actors will say what but when and the manner the lines are to be delivered. Additionally, all games have ‘throw away dialogue’. This dialogue is something that takes place outside the scope of the story and with no player interaction. A prime example would be the Elder Scrolls series: in the game you will notice that as you pass NPCs within a certain distance they will spew a nebulous piece of dialogue at the character. The purpose of that speech is to deepen immersion for the player.

6. Organizing

Tied in with writing is the organization of the script. Each line for each character must be organized into categories by actor and by role (*Note: some actors play more than one role in a given game). If the primary character has 2000 lines to read, those lines must be put into a single organization. During recording, the actor and staff can read a line; mark it done; and move on efficiently.

Writing is often done in-house and production is done on contract; as a result organization between companies can break down and cause undue delay. Uniform and efficient organization is critical for a timely production schedule. 

7. Recording

Recording is what first comes to mind for most when they imagine voice over production. However, it is probably much different than most people assume. Recording is a small and intimate process. There are only 3 people necessary for a successful recording session.

  1. The Talent: The actor is the pivotal part of recording and without them everyone else is recording an empty booth.
  2. Voice Director: This is the primary support for the actor. The director’s job is to prep the actor before each line. If the line delivery was not spot-on, the director will provide some direction to push the actor more towards a more perfect delivery.
  3. Sound Engineer: This person is responsible for controlling the technical side of recording. They manage the sound board, run the software suite that records the session, and update the line count after each delivery.

Voice Over is a very strenuous on the voice actor. It involves a large amount of repetition, speaking in unnatural accents, straining of the voice (to either create abnormal sounds or loud vocalizations called ‘efforts’), and it is fast (relentlessly so). This type of activity can be both physically and mentally exhausting for actors. Many screen actors who are new to voice acting will soon find they struggle to keep pace. Newer actors with little experience find that delivering lines with little preparation is difficult, that may mean a recast will be necessary for certain actors if they can’t keep up.

If some lines don’t get recorded before the session ends, or if an editor can’t salvage any of the takes, the actor will be called in for pickups. Pickups are simply when the actor returns for another session to record the lines that weren’t completed.

8. Editing

Voice Over editing is a two part process. First, during the recording session the director will denote which of the recorded takes was best delivered. Second, it is the responsibility of the editor to examine the indicated take and cut it accordingly. When a line is recorded, all the takes are recorded to one audio file, the good take is surrounded by bad takes and aimless talking. The editor needs to cut the good take cleanly from that file and polish it up. ‘Polish’ is adding any number of voodoo type post production magics to the line: cleaning up audio artifacts, removing excess noise, and cutting out sounds unintentionally made by the actor. If in the good take the actor stumbled on a single word, the editor may take the problem word from a different take and overwrite the mistake in the good take, creating what is known as a ‘Frankenstein’. These edits will be the final production quality version of the line with background noise and voice problems cleared out.

9. QA (Optional)

Some producers choose to perform Quality Assurance on the dialogue before it gets sent off for good. During QA, production employees will comb over every line that has been edited to check for: consistency with the script (Does the actor say what they are supposed to say?), audio clarity (Are there distracting background noises or artifacts that the editor missed?), and accuracy of labeling (Is the line labeled and named properly? If not the developers will add the line based on its label and the wrong character will spit out the wrong line). If they find errors they mark them to be sent back the editor. If the mistake is bad enough, a re-record will be needed and the line will get sent back to the director for inclusion in the pickups (*See Above: 7-Recording).

10. Delivery

So now that the lines have been recorded, cut, and checked: they are ready to be added into the game. Lines still in the hands of the production team need to be delivered to the development team in order for final implementation. Both teams will have to designate uniform method of delivery so that the developers can anticipate when the lines will be delivered, how many there will be, and what lines are in each delivery. This usually means delivering in bulk organized by: recording day, character, actor, and scene.

11. Implementation

The developer receives the polished lines that have been delivered and inserts them into the game. The developers are responsible for taking the deliveries and decomposing them and then taking the parts and placing them properly throughout the game. This step shows how critical it is for reliable Editing and QA. If a line is cut or labeled improperly, the developers may not catch the mistake, and the may player will hear a character speak someone else’s line.

So that’s Voice Over production in the tightest nut shell I could squeeze it into. I have attached the original full (and relatively unedited) 4500 word post. It goes into much more detail about why certain processes are important or the problems that can arise in each step. If you are interested I ask you to download it and take a look.

As always, comment if you have thoughts, praise, criticism, or objections.

I would ask that you keep in mind this post is based off of my personal experience, and I fully understand the each game publisher and developer goes about VO a different way.

Original:

Coming Soon (I have to clean it up a bit).

Who am I?

I’m a third year Video Game Development and Design Major at Rochester Institute of Technology. I have grown up around computers and I love technology. I have dedicated myself to developing a career in the video game industry in any postion. While my major focusses towards programming and development, I like to think that my skills are not only in coding, but in other elements of desgin. I am experienced with level design, 3D modelling, animation, different design methodologies and writing.

Aditionally I am deeply interested in music. I find music therapeutic. I take any and all oppurtunities to see live concerts. I find that so long as the act your seeing isnt a type of music you dislike: you will have a great time. I am 20 years old and I have been to roughly 18 different shows, and seen approximately 55 different artists perform.

Video Games are the career and field of study I have chosen, they are of near infinite interest to me. With so many possibilites and facets that the medium of interactive media possesses, its hard not to become involved. I find myself drawn to action games. This includes: First Person Shooters, Third Person Shooters, Stealth, Real Time Strategy, Turn Based Strategy, Flight Simuilators, Role Playing, and some Racing games. After playing thousands of games, it appears to me that action games (such as those listed above) lend themselves to better plot and character development.

As a child I was drawn toward ‘fun’ games. These were the games with fun mechanics and good hooks. As I grew older I saw that I wanted to play more ‘good’ games. Now that does not mean ‘fun’ and ‘good’ games are mutually exclusive. Often there is much over lap. But I started to see more and more the difference between games that you get hooked on for days, then the moment you finish you can even remember the character names; and games that really pull you in and involve you in a story that sticks with you. I try to design, develop, and play ‘good’ games. Games that when the credits roll the player sits there and watches them; not because they want to see the names, but because they physically can’t move: they are dumbstruck.

A little bit about me personally, I am deeply political: so much so that I have often considered running for public office later in life. I find myself in the extreme corner of classical liberalism. That puts me in line with the current Libertarian Party in the US. However, I subscribe to the theory of Rational Anarchy as described below:

“A rational anarchist believes that concepts such as ‘state’ and ‘society’ and ‘government’ have no existence save as physically exemplified in the acts of self-responsible individuals. He believes that it is impossible to shift blame, share blame, distribute blame . . . as blame, guilt, responsibility are matters taking place inside human beings singly and nowhere else. But being rational, he knows that not all individuals hold his evaluations, so he tries to live perfectly in an imperfect world . . . aware that his effort will be less than perfect yet undismayed by self-knowledge of self-failure.

Before I committed to RIT, and the game design program there, I was seriously considering going to school for Political Science. I have always been someone who was deeply interested in history. As a kid, if I wasn’t watching cartoons; I was watching the latest special on military history on The History Channel. My favorite recreational reading has been historical fiction and military fiction books. As a result I ended up studying a lot of American history, much of which involves the creation of our nation and the foundation of our government. I began reading the writings of our founding fathers and revolutionary visionaries: Jefferson, Madison, Paine, Jay, Hamilton, Adams, and others. While reading these teachings I saw allusions to older works of political theory and practice. References to: Montesquieu, Locke, Burke, Hobbes, Machiavelli, and Voltaire. I started reading their works. I found that often the political rhetoric within these books was more enjoyable and biting than most modern comedy. From that point I was hooked. I read almost every piece of legitimate politcal writing I come across.